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Saturday, May 2, 2020 | History

2 edition of effects of X-ray on recombination in chromosome 2 of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) found in the catalog.

effects of X-ray on recombination in chromosome 2 of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

Wilma Patricia Sweaney

effects of X-ray on recombination in chromosome 2 of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

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  • 6 Currently reading

Published by s.n.] in [Toronto .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Chromosomes,
  • Genetic recombination,
  • Radiogenetics,
  • Tomatoes

  • Edition Notes

    ContributionsToronto, Ont. University.
    The Physical Object
    Paginationxix, 198 leaves:
    Number of Pages198
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL20175752M

    The first GM crop to be introduced into the market was the Flavr Savr Tomato produced in Figure Crossover may occur at different locations on the chromosome. Recombination between genes A and B is more frequent than recombination between genes B and C because genes A and B are farther apart; a crossover is therefore more likely. Gene Structure. Introduction: ‘Genetics of the Genes’: Hippocrates a Greek physician, BC described that reproductive material comes from all parts of the body. Aristotle BC said that reproductive material is made up of nutrients- diverted to reproductive path. Rudolf Jacob Camerarius , pollination is responsible for inheritance, so pollen considered as male and pistil female. Translocation Cellular Metabolism of Fluoride Distribution Bioelimination Effects Metabolic Effects Symptoms of Fluoride Accumulation Effects of Fluoride on Growth and Productivity Cytogenetic Effects 5.   Induced mutations: Crop Mutant Variety Original variety Mutagene Jagannath, T X-Ray Mahsuri mutant Mahsuri Ƴ-Ray Sharbati sonara Sonara UV Ray NP NP X-Ray S Sioux Ƴ-Ray Aruna HC-6 Thermal neutrons MCU-7 EE X-Ray MCU MCU-4 Ƴ-Ray

      Introduction. Heterostyly is a classical paradigm in plant genetics, evolution, and ecology (Barrett, ).It has fascinated plant scientists for centuries (Gilmartin, ), with Charles Darwin laying the basis for its functional dissection with his book on ‘The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species’ in (Darwin, ).In heterostylous species, the individuals fall Cited by:


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effects of X-ray on recombination in chromosome 2 of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) by Wilma Patricia Sweaney Download PDF EPUB FB2

X-ray-induced deficiencies of chromosome 11 in the tomato. RICK CM, KHUSH GS. PMCID: PMC PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH Terms. Chromosomes/radiation effects* Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11* Humans; Lycopersicon esculentum* Radiation Effects/genetics* X Cited by: @article{osti_, title = {Effects of fluoride on pollen germination, pollen tube growth, and fruit development in tomato and cucumber}, author = {Sulzbach, C W and Pack, M R}, abstractNote = {Tomato and cucumber pollen germination in vitro was significantly inhibited at and mM NaF, respectively, or higher, in media containing mM Ca.

X-ray and UVC are the two physical agents that damage DNA directly, with both agents capable of inducing double-strand breaks. Some of our recent work has demonstrated that local exposure to UVC results in a systemic increase in recombination frequency, suggesting that information about exposure can be passed from damaged to non-damaged by: 2.

Somatic chromosome karyotype of tomato based on in situ hybridization of the TGRI satellite repeat NORA L. LAPITAN,' MARTIN W. GANAL, AND STEVEN D. TANKSLEY~ Department of. Comparison of recombination fraction in selected intervals among three mapping populations; tomato (L.

est X L. pen Fe), potato P1 = T (S. tbr X S. chc), and potato P2 = 84S10 (S. p h 4. Ashley, T, and Cacheiro, N L A. Correlation between meiotic behavior and breakpoints with respect to G-bands in two X-4 mouse translocations: T(X;4)7R1 and T(X;4) by: The effects of radiation on Sordaria fimicola My A-level project is based upon the effect of radiation on the frequency of recombination in Sordaria fimicola, crossing black- and white-spored varieties.

I am looking for information on normal recombination frequencies. Can you help. Flower buds of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) gibberellin-deficient mutant (ga-2/ga-2) were initiated, but did not develop to maturity and eventually aborted.

If GA{sub 1} was applied to a developing inflorescence or stem tip, completion of flower bud development and fruit set occurred. Polyploidy is the state of a cell or organism having more than two paired sets of oidy refers to a numerical change in a whole set of chromosomes. Most species whose cells have nuclei are diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes—one set inherited from each r, some organisms are polyploid, and polyploidy is especially common in plants.

Tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller (2n = 2x = 24), is one of the most important vegetable crops of Solanaceae grown all over the world.

The tomato is a native of South America and Mexico, and the domestication of tomato took place in Mexico. Boswell 8 has given a detailed account of the origin and history of the tomato. Its evolutionary pathway in Latin America prior to and after Cited by: Crossover recombination is a crucial process in plant breeding because it allows plant breeders to create novel allele combnations on chromosomes that can be used for breeding superior F1 hybrids.

Gaining control over this process, in terms of increasing crossover incidence, altering crossover positions on chromosomes or silencing crossover formation, is essential for plant breeders to Cited by: Chromosomes, Genes and DNA.

STUDY. PLAY. What is DNA. The chemical that is the basis of inheritance for all genes. Where is DNA usually found.

In the nucleus of a cell in the chromosomes. What is a gene. A small section of DNA which determines a pert ocular feature.

How do. (d) Pairing and recombination for a chromosome pair in which one partner has a homoeologous chromosome segment (represented in blue). It is known that even a short terminal deletion in one of the pairing chromosomes can severely reduce crossover formation in the affected arm [27].Cited by:   1.

The X-ray-induced frequency of mutation, mitotic recombination and gene conversion was determined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

X-rays induced only few mutations compared with alkylating nitrosamides but were highly efficient in the induction of mitotic recombination and gene conversion.

Therefore, X-rays in spite of their low mutagenicity turned out genetically to be a very Cited by: 8. BARTON, D. Pachytene morphology of the tomato chromosome complement. Amer. Bot., 37, – CrossRef Google ScholarCited by: -with recombination Ry 20%, rY 20%, RY 80%, ry 80%- depends on distance apart on chromosome -flies- chromosomal inheritance- white eye linked to normal color body, parental type expect to see mostly wy+ or w+y, but recombination can occur in females, more recombination- further apart they are.

In F 1 half of the males having normal X-chromosome will survive and those carrying CIB chromosome will die. Among the females, half have CIB chromosome and half normal chromosome (Fig. From F 1, females with CIB chromosome and male with normal chromosome are selected for further crossing.

The Encyclopedia of Genetics provides the most complete and authoritative coverage of genetics ever published. Sydney Brenner, the Nobel Prize winner for Physiology or Medicine, and Professor Jeffrey H. Miller of UCLA have gathered the world's top geneticists to contribute to Format: Hardcover.

Drosophila Chromosomes: In Drosophila melanogaster there are 4 homologous pairs of chromosomes: 2 pairs of large autosomes, (one slightly smaller than the other pair), 1 pair of very small autosomes, and a pair of sex chromosomes.

Females normally have two X. Hermann Joseph Muller conducted three experiments in and that demonstrated that exposure to x-rays, a form of high-energy radiation, can cause genetic mutations, changes to an organism's genome, particularly in egg and sperm cells.

In his experiments, Muller exposed fruit flies () to x-rays, mated the flies, and observed the number of mutations in the offspring. midland and there hybridize, the F 1 hybrids will all have genotype Aa and phenotype XY. Intercrossing of the F 1,s will produce all three genotypes in subsequent generations of the new midland “race.”But in this mixed “race,” individuals of type XY are more closely related (a distance of one parent-child step) to their homozygous parents of type X or Y than are individuals of type X.

A major QTL (qc/qd) affecting α-tocopherol (αT) was identified on chromosome 5 between the PZA and PZA in the POP The QTL region was narrowed down from Mb to Mb by estimating the recombination using high-density markers of the QTL region.

With x-ray damage, the problem is worse than single base pair changes. X-rays are energetic enough to snap DNA strands in half, causing damage called double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normally, the cell is clever enough to fix these DSBs without trouble, but sometimes, sequences get lost when the cell re-joins the two broken strands.

the centromere because recombinant asci are a result. The information found in this table is used to calculate the frequencies of each type of recombination that is found in the table below. Table 2: Frequencies of Recombination between the section control data and the high x-ray wild type crossed with low x-ray tan type (treatment group).

Transposition is the main form of recombination in which DNA sections translocate from one location to another, either on the same type of chromosome or a different. Charles (or Charley as he was affectionately known) was born in in Reading, Pennsylvania. He grew up working in his father’s peach orchards, and as an active member of the Boy Scouts he engaged in many outdoor activities.

For >20 years, the enigmatic behavior of plant mitochondrial genomes has been well described but not well understood. Chimeric genes appear, and occasionally are differentially replicated or expressed, with significant effects on plant phenotype, most notably on male fertility, yet the mechanisms of DNA replication, chimera formation, and recombination have remained elusive.

However, he found the x-ray's effects to be weak. InMuller began investigating whether the radiation from x-rays could mutate genetic material.

In a series of three experiments, he exposed fruit flies to x-ray radiation and then mated the flies. Mutation breeding, sometimes referred to as "variation breeding", is the process of exposing seeds to chemicals or radiation in order to generate mutants with desirable traits to be bred with other created using mutagenesis are sometimes called mutagenic plants or mutagenic seeds.

From to more than mutagenic plant varieties were released that have been derived. Polymorphic markers have also been used to map a loci coinded Ty-2 conferring resistance to ToLCV, originating from S. habrochaites to tomato chromosome 11 (Hanson et al., ).

A major partially dominant locus, termed Ty-3, was mapped to chromosome 6, near the Ty-1 locus (Ji et al., ). This banner text can have markup. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation.

Telomeres and telomerase are nowadays exploring traits on targets for anticancer therapy. Telomerase is a unique reverse transcriptase enzyme, considered as a primary factor in almost all cancer cells, which is mainly responsible to regulate the telomere length.

Hence, telomerase ensures the indefinite cell proliferation during malignancy—a hallmark of cancer—and this distinctive feature Cited by:   1 v. (various pagings): 26 cm Includes bibliographical references and index 1.

An introduction to genetics: The historical context of Genetics: Prehistoric domestication of animals and cultivation of plants ; The Greek influence: Hippocrates and Aristotle ; The dawn of modern biology: ; Darwin: the gap in his theory of evolution ; Mendel: an experimental : The genomic integrity of every organism is constantly challenged by endogenous and exogenous DNA-damaging factors.

Mutagenic agents cause reduced stability of plant genome and have a deleterious effect on development, and in the case of crop species lead to yield reduction. It is crucial for all organisms, including plants, to develop efficient mechanisms for maintenance of the genome by: Other techniques to introduce variation in cultivars include cell fusion, somaclonal variation, chemical or x-ray mutagenesis, and genetic engineering (see section ).

Cell fusion is used to produce novel combinations of genomic material from nuclei and organelles when plants are not sexually compatible (Ehlenfeldt and Helgeson ); it. As a predicted result of increasing population worldwide, improvements in the breeding strategies in agriculture are valued as mandatory.

The natural resources are limited, and due to the natural disasters like sudden and severe abiotic stress factors, excessive floods, etc., the production capacities are changed per year. In contrast, the yield potential should be significantly increased to Cited by: 1.

DNA copy number variation (CNV) occurs due to deletion or duplication of DNA segments resulting in a different number of copies of a specific DNA-stretch on homologous chromosomes. Implications of CNVs in evolution and development of different diseases have been demonstrated although contribution of environmental factors, such as mutagens, in the origin of CNVs, is poorly : Galina Hovhannisyan, Tigran Harutyunyan, Rouben Aroutiounian, Thomas Liehr.

Lomax, Interactions between Gravity and Light in Determining Plant Form: Analysis Using the lazy-2 Mutant of Tomato Lysakowski, Ultrastructural, Neurochemical and Developmental Responses to Hypergravity Musgrave, Microgravity Effects on Seed Development and Maturation.

In another example, the elongated fruit of some tomato varieties is due to the retrotransposon-mediated duplication of a kb segment from chromosome 10 that includes the SUN gene for tomato fruit shape and its movement into the putative defensin gene DEFL1 on chromosome 7 (Xiao et al., ).

(i) The d allele will be more frequent, as the forward mutation (D to d) occurs at a higher rate than the back mutation. (ii) Let the frequency of D = p, and the frequency of d = q, forward mutation rate = u, and back mutation rate = v. Then the change in p would include loss from forward mutation and gain from back mutation; likewise, change in q would include gain from forward mutation.

Meiotic recombination and chromosome assortment events dramatically redistributed genome variation in meiotic products, contributing to population diversity. In particular, meiosis provides a rapid mechanism to generate copy-number variation (CNV) of sequences that have different chromosomal positions in Col and Ler.

Triterpene saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Saponins usually are glycosylated, which gives rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions.

In the group A saponins of soybean (Glycine max), differences in the terminal sugar species located on the C sugar chain of an aglycone core, soyasapogenol A, were observed to be under genetic control.A clear and straightforward explanation of genetics in this new edition of the popular series.

Our genetic makeup determines so much about who we are, and what we pass on to our children—from eye color, to height, to health, and even our longevity.